Development and the Use of Chemistry Teaching Video Materials by Internet Browser
Noboru ASHIDA, Yoshihiro AOYAMA, Tadayosi YOSHIMURA
and Brian T. NEWBOLD
Multimedia technology, which has progressed rapidly, can improve CAL (computer-aided learning) software in the field of chemical education. We developed multimedia type CAL software adapted to a QuickTime operation system in Macintosh. In particular, we edited a video movie into a short interval file and used it in CAL software. Short video presentation has a great advantage in chemistry teaching[1, 2]. In this method we developed CAL software of ExpandBook form used alone, however, use from the outside (Internet) was difficult, and the dependence of the computer machine was higher for the CAL software.
Recently, the spread of Internet includes remarkable progress[3, 4]. We can establish a home page simply, because a functional word processor for Internet spreads. Internet spread recently to an education system, and then home page of HTML (Hyper Text Mark-up Language) form with a browser established in the field of education[3-5]. A browser can display a lot of multimedia information in World Wide Web (WWW), and is extremely useful for teaching materials development. We have developed multimedia type chemical CAL software by Internet browser. The advantage of developing teaching materials with a browser is that anyone can use them at any time anywhere in Internet.
2. Preparation of Chemistry CAL software with QuickTime
Chemistry teachers have a courseware for teaching in school. We enforce learning before the chemistry experimental training in our College, so the CAL materials program was developed for physical chemistry experiments in Japanese, as shown in Table 1. A student beginning an experiment uses the program and then puts the training into effect. We enforced the training effect of experimental education with beforehand learning.
Table 1 Theme list of Physical Chemistry Experiments
| No. || Chapter title ||Type|
|1 ||neutralization heat between acid and base solutions ||HTML|
|2 ||dilution heat of dimethylformamide into water ||DOS|
|3 ||molecular weight of acetone by Victor-Meyer method ||DOS|
|4 ||molecular weight of nitrobenzene by steam-distillation method ||DOS|
|5 ||molecular weight of naphthalene by depression of freezing point method ||DOS|
|6 ||solubility of benzoic acid and the dissolution heat ||DOS|
|7 ||partition coefficient between aqueous and benzene phases ||HTML|
|8 ||ionization constant of acetic acid ||DOS|
|9 ||physical properties (viscosity, density etc.) of ethanol and water solution ||DOS|
|10||hydrolysis of ethyl acetate in acidic solution ||DOS|
|11||hydrolysis of ethyl acetate in basic solution ||DOS|
|12||inversion reaction of sucrose solution ||DOS|
|13||adsorption of acetic acid on activated charcoal ||DOS|
|14||point of zero charge of metal oxide colloid ||DOS|
|15||electromotive force of concentration cell ||HTML|
|16||decomposition voltage of electrolyte solutions ||DOS|
|17||transport number of HCl solution ||DOS|
|18||potential difference titration of neutralization ||HTML|
Multimedia type CAL material allows students to visualize chemistry operations in practical experiments. We filmed the manipulation of physical chemistry experiments whose themes were: No.1 neutralization heat, No.7 partition coefficient between aqueous and benzene phases, No.15 electromotive force of concentration cell, and No.18 potential difference titration (Table 1). We used ExpandBook Toolkit as CAL building system, and prepared the beforehand CAL software with video movie. A few minutes interval of video presentation can be very flexible time and encourage chemistry teaching in ExpandBook.
We have converted CAL software, made by ExpandBook form, into HTML form, whose themes cover physical chemistry experiments (HTML type in Table 1). Multimedia type chemical CAL material really helps students to visualize chemistry operations in practical experiments.
3. Development of Chemistry CAL Materials by HTML Language
Anyone can make a teaching document by HTML language easily if they memorize a procedure. The materials of chemistry teaching are divided into three types of information; (1) text information, (2) graphics information, and (3) video information. As shown in Fig.1, we just use text information in HTML form as a simple text. We can convert filed graphics into GIF(graphics interchange file format) file for Netscape Navigator (WWW) by the use of a GIF converter. After having filmed an experimental operation with a 8 mm video camera on video information, we can convert the filmed video movie into QuickTime file. In that time, we cut a video movie at intervals of a few minutes to each section of experimental operation by the use of Apple VideoPlayer version 7.5.3. The memory size of video file is 93.8 MB/min. It is a very large memory because a hard disk of 1 GB becomes full with 10 files. Because a few minutes interval of video file is too big, it can't be utilized in CAL materials. We made the memory size smaller by compressing it into 5.73 MB/min (canvas size 160×120) by the use of Avid VideoShop version 3.0J, and could utilize it readily. Though a drawing quality of the video came off, it was compressed into one-16th of its size, and was available for hard disk.
The compressed video movie can start without any problem when we use it flexibly in a stand-alone computer. When a student wants to do an experimental study, the CAL software must start instantly. Time must not cause crowded reading of CAL software.
Fig. 1 Flow chart for making HTML type chemistry CAL software
4. Problem of Using School LAN
By using school LAN(Local Area Network), we put chemistry CAL software with server computer, and students tried to access it from a personal computer in a laboratory in order to learn individually before the experiment. There was a big problem, the cause of which was the paste account (HTML: embed style) of the video movie, as the following sentence shows:
We need a time of three minutes to read the page set up two embed styles of 5 MB video movies from server computer. Three minutes of reading time is too long for students to study by CAL. We can not utilize an embed style of video movie with server and client connection of the current computer.
Why not utilize a video movie till the performance of the computer is equivalent to an embed style of video movie on school LAN? The answer is, when a student wants to look at a video movie on LAN, he/she reads it one by one from the server computer and then looks at it in order to study before an experiment. The reading time of a video movie is not so long for the student who wants to learn before an experiment individually. The student reads the video movie of experimetal operation with his/her learning as the objective. Therefore, we have set up the first image picture of the video movie on a page of CAL software, which is read and starts when one clicks video movie picture. Fig. 2 shows a display set up for image style of video movie, and Fig. 3 shows a display set up for embed style of video movie in CAL software.
In this method, we can enforce activation of a video movie with effective CAL learning time. Naturally we want to utilize an embed style of video movie in a CAL system, however, this method
Fig. 2 Display set up for image style of video movie in CAL software.
is most effective with a video movie in performance with current machinery. When we tried the intranet use of CAL software in a remote place (separate room), the CAL video movie showed smooth movement and was useful for students learning on the LAN.
When we look at a video movie with Internet, however, it takes much waiting time very much to install a movie on a screen by oneself. For example, it took an installing time of 50 min for 0.8MB of video movie in the USA (from Wisconsin Unversity) with Internet. Its animation time was 6 sec. In the current computer communication, we can use a movie file with LAN, but it is difficult to use it with Internet.
Fig. 3 Display set up for embed style of video movie in CAL software.
We put chemistry CAL software with server computer, and students tried to access it from a personal computer in a laboratory in order to learn individually before the experiment. Multimedia type chemistry CAL material with video movie really helps students to visualize chemistry operations in practical experiments. When a student wants to look at a video movie on LAN, he/she reads it one by one from the server computer and then looks at it. The reading time of a video movie is shorter for the student, who wants to learn before an experiment individually. We can enforce activation of a video movie with effective CAL learning time.
The authors wish to express their thanks to Professor Sumio Tokita of Saitama University for valuable advice and discussions throughout this work. Parts of this paper were presented at the 7th Asian Chemical Congress '97 in Hiroshima.
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